In full heart of the Atacama Desert in the Antofagasta-Chile Region, specifically 70 kms inside the city of Antofagasta in the Sierra Gorda commune is located the historic town of Estación Baquedano. Which houses one of the most important Railway Heritage in the country.
This area of the Atacama Desert was called by the Spanish invaders as the "Depopulated" of Atacama, referring to an extension of land that extends from the Tarapacá region to the Copiapó valley and that is located in the intermediate depression, between the mountain ranges. from La Costa and Los Andes. Baquedano Station is located next to the Quebrada Saco, which runs through a vast area of land from the Carmen Alto sector reaching the Salar del Carmen.
The climate is Interior Desert with low humidity (20%) and extreme low temperatures that exceed 30º in the shade during the day and that can reach below zero degrees at night. One of the characteristics of this desert is the phenomenon of the "Camanchaca" or thick fog of low altitude that advances from the coast towards the mountain range covering with its white mantle the hills and plains of the pampas.
Flora and fauna
This territory received The denomination of "depopulated" because there was no trace of organic, plant or animal life, this is because in this area there are no natural water tributaries, which did not allow the development of vegetation. However, we can find some insects and animals that have adapted to These conditions such as lizards, mice, some types of flies, raptors (jote), Today we can find vegetation due to the action of man, among this we find trees such as carob, Tamarugo, Chañar and the most popular and used of all , the Molle or Pepper, which is used for its great ability to survive to lack of water and the large amount of shade it can provide as it is a leafy specimen. The latter are the most used in the ornamentation of squares and public spaces of the pampa.